Manualized Psychotherapies in the "Real World"


  • Katherine L Muller



posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), prolonged exposure (PE), Plan Analysis, manualized psychotherapy


Manualized psychotherapies, especially those that are cognitive-behavioral in nature, are becoming an increasingly important part of everyday clinical practice. While this development is exciting, it also poses certain challenges. In this context, Kramer (2009) describes a modified application of Foa and Rothbaum’s Prolonged Exposure (PE; Foa & Rothbaum, 1998) with Caroline, a 26-year-old woman with a history of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Kramer pairs this manualized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy with an enhanced case conceptualization and treatment plan utilizing Caspar’s Plan Analysis approach (Caspar, 2007). This commentary reviews the case, evaluates the application of PE, and offers suggestions for future use of manualized treatments in "real world" clinical settings.




How to Cite

Muller, K. L. (2009). Manualized Psychotherapies in the "Real World". Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy, 5(2), 28–34.